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A mold seam is present indicating that this piece comes from the back of the bowl (closest to the stem). Decorative molded pipe bowls like these became common after 1730 and were evolving into more elaborate forms after 1820. Though less likely, the steepness of the rear wall suggests that it might also be of several other types (10-14) that were in use between 17. Following Oswald (1975), the morphology of this bowl fragment is suggestive of Type 13 (Thin, short bowls, flared mouth…flat spurs which after c. If the former match is correct, then the presences of a seam makes it likely that the pipe fragment was manufactured between 17. They might have been acquired either from the French who landed at A’asu in 1797, or they might have been obtained from itinerant whalers, who were known to frequent the coast prior to extensive contact with European missionaries after 1840. The Art and Archaeology of Clay Tobacco Pipes, Release A (CD-ROM). In either case, this artifact is the earliest known physical evidence for European contact in Samoa.

It is a small fragment of the upper wall and rim of the bowl mouth. The fragment incorporates a design motif consisting of upturned flames (that would have originated lower on the bowl), and a decorative band around the rim. Because the fragment is small, there is some ambiguity in the type.

We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald 1975 typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer. The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacco Pipe, edited by Peter Davey, BAR International Series, 13 volumes 1979-1994.

When using bowl typologies, we also acknowledge Nol Humes caveat (194) that we suspect remains as valid today as it was 45 years ago: There is, unfortunately, a great deal that we do not yet know about the so-called evolution of bowls and stems, and there is reason to suspect that present stylistic and dating criteria have been oversimplified. For example: Atkinson, David and Adrian Oswald 1980 The Dating and Typology of Clay Pipes Bearing the Royal Arms.

While we recommend this reference as the most comprehensive, some archaeologists (including the DAACS initiative) prefer Atkinson and Oswalds (1969:7-12, figure 1 and figure 2) London-derived typology for its detailed approach to 17th-century pipes.

Because most historical archaeologists can locate a copy of Nol Humes Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (192, figure 97) within arms reach, this is the most frequently used though admittedly simplified bowl typology.

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